Frankfurter Gemeine Zeitung

Von Ameisen lernen heißt siegen lernen !

Aus der Reihe “Ideen für 2015″: die Rebellion der Sklavenameisen

Evolutionspsychologie ist schon lange in Mode, Evolutionssoziologie stark im kommen. Besonders beliebt sind Ameisen, vermutlich deswegen, weil sie für menschliche Nationenbildung ein so lehrreiches Vorbild abgeben. Zumindest meinen das einige, und gerade Deutschland ist auf diesem Gebiet der Forschung ganz vorne dabei. Ich erinnere nur an den legendären Wissenschafts-Star für Ameisenstaaten, Bert Hölldobler, der seine ersten akademischen Meriten in Frankfurt erwarb.

Weniger bekannt dürfte dem breiten Publikum der Sachverhalt sein, dass sich Ameisenstaaten mitunter über  Methoden reproduzieren, die derart hinterlistig wie unappetitlich sind, dass wir uns schnell an menschliche Sozialorganisationen erinnern.

Besondere Karriere machte dabei die “Protomognathus americanus” oder “Amerikanische Sklavenhalterameise”. Sie überfällt benachbarte Ameisenstämme, fängt ihre Arbeiterinnen ein und zwingt sie zu lebenslanger Arbeit im Sklavenstaat. Das Geschehen wird bei ihr seit Jahren beobachtet, doch die amerikanische Sklavenhaltervariante ist nicht die einzige auf der Welt, z. B. siedelt die “Harpagoxenus sublaevis” in unseren Gefilden. Um möglichen Vorwürfen eines ameisigen Anti-Amerikanismus schon im Vorfeld entgegenzutreten.

Das amerikanische Ameisen-Geschehen rund um Sklaven zeichnet sich aber durch besondere Verhältnisse aus, denn ein paar pfiffige Köpfe aus Mainz entdeckten, dass die versklavten Ameisen nicht alles mit sich machen lassen – im Gegenteil.

Gewöhnlich werden die Sklavinnen auch für Sorge und Pflege der Jungbrut der Sklavenhalterinnen eingesetzt, und diese Chance lassen sie sich nicht entgehen.  Es wurde beobachtet, dass die Sklavinnen regelmäßig einen erheblichen Teil der Sklavenhalterbrut massakrierten, und damit die Reproduktion der Sklavenhalter erheblich beeinträchtigten.

Mit anderen Worten ist “Sklavenrebellion bei Ameisen weit verbreitet“, und aus Mainz stammt auch eine erstaunliche Erklärung dafür: die versklavten Ameisen leben in (unsichtbarer) sozialer Relation mit den benachbarten, noch nicht versklavten Ameisen, deren “indirekte Fitness” sie stärken: “Durch das Töten der Sklavenhalternachkommen erhalten aber benachbarte Verwandte, die Schwestern der versklavten Arbeiterinnen sein können, einen indirekten Fitnessvorteil: Die Wachstumsrate von Nestern, die durch Sklavenrebellion geschädigt sind, ist geringer und kleinere Sklavenhalternester unternehmen weniger Raubzüge in die Umgebung.

Auf menschliche Verhältnisse übersetzt könnten wir das “Solidarität” nennen, eine soziale Eigenschaft, die bei uns leider genauso wie Rebellion seltener vorkommt als bei den versklavten Ameisen.

Es gibt deshalb einiges von diesen Ameisen zu lernen. Wir müssten uns dazu nur über unsere Solidarität und die Bestimmung des Nachwuchses der Sklavenhalter klarer werden.

Die beschriebenen Zusammenhänge bei den Ameisen zeigt uns das Team aus Mainz im Video:

 

PS.: die Überschrift bezieht sich auf 2 historische Varianten:

Merkel – “Von Gerhard Schröder lernen heißt siegen lernen” und die lernte es wohl von der alten

Parole der DDR -  “Von der Sowjetunion lernen, heißt siegen lernen

PS-2: wir wünschen dem DFG-Projekt “The evolution of resistance and virulence in structured populations” noch viel Erfolg!  


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