Frankfurter Gemeine Zeitung

Das SGB II, die Jobcenter und der Sozialdatenschutz

Unter dem Motto AufRecht bestehen!  wurden am 10.03.2016 bundesweit Demonstrationen und Kundgebungen von Erwerbslosengruppen durchgeführt. Anlass der Aktionen war der von Bundesarbeitsministerin Nahles (SPD) erarbeitete Entwurf eines SGB-II-Rechtsvereinfachungsgesetzes, der u. a. weitere Überwachungsmaßnahmen der Jobcenter gegenüber Erwerbslosen und BezieherInnen von SGB-II-Leistungen vorsieht. Die Kundgebung in Frankfurt fand statt vor dem Gebäude des SPD-Unterbezirks Frankfurt.

Das SGB II, Die Jobcenter Und Der Sozialdatenschutz

Walter Schmidt 

Walter Schmidt, Mitglied der Bürgerrechtsgruppe dieDatenschützer Rhein Main sprach in seiner Rede das Thema „Das SGB II, die Jobcenter und der Sozialdatenschutz“ an. Einige Auszüge aus der Rede:

„Bert Brecht stellt in der Dreigroschenoper die Frage ‚Denn wovon lebt der Mensch?‘ Und er beantwortet sie mit dem Satz, den hier viele sicher kennen: ‚Erst kommt das Fressen, dann kommt die Moral.‘ Will sagen: Solange ich nicht genug zum Überleben habe, ist mir vieles andere egal. Sollte es aber nicht!

Erwerbslose und ihre Familien sind wie kaum eine andere Bevölkerungsgruppe – außer Menschen ohne deutschen Pass – einer umfassenden Überwachung ihrer Verhältnisse ausgesetzt.

Das fängt mit den Mitwirkungspflichten im SGB I an und geht weiter mit den im SGB II geregelten Auskunftsrechten der Jobcenter gegenüber anderen Behörden wie z. B. Unfall- oder Rentenversicherungen, Krankenkassen, dem Bundeszentralamt für Steuern, dem Zentralen Fahr-zeugregister und dem Melderegister…

Aus den im SGB normierten weitgehenden Auskunftsverpflichtungen der Betroffenen und den noch weitergehenden Überwachungsrechten der Jobcenter heraus hat sich auf breiter Front eine Praxis durchgesetzt, die rechtswidrig ist und die Menschen vor den Schreibtischen in den Jobcentern in ihren Grundrechten beeinträchtigt. An einem Beispiel will ich das illustrieren:

Das Bayerische Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Soziales hat im September 2015 ein 11-seitiges Schreiben zum Thema ‘Vollzug des SGB II – Erheben, Verarbeiten und Nutzen von Sozialdaten’ veröffentlicht. Das umfangreiche Schreiben lässt sich nur so erklären, dass dem Ministerium als Fach- und Rechtsaufsicht über die kommunalen Jobcenter in Bayern eine Vielzahl datenschutzrechtlich fragwürdiger bzw. rechtswidriger Praktiken bekannt geworden sind. In 10 Abschnitten werden Probleme benannt. Das Ministerium erkennt hier offensichtlich Regelungs- und Änderungsbedarf bei scheinbar weit verbreiteten Verhaltensweisen. Im Abschnitt ’1. Allgemeines’ wird eine offensichtlich häufig vorhandene Praxis kritisiert. Dort ist zu lesen: ‘Das (formularmäßige) Erheben von Unterlagen/Sozialdaten ‚ins Blaue hinein‘, d. h. die prophylaktische Anforderung aller ggfs.in Betracht kommenden Unterlagen für die Antragsbearbeitung ist … nicht zulässig.’… Im Abschnitt ’10. Nicht erforderliche Unterlagen’ wird festgestellt: ‘Nach unserer Kenntnis werden von den Jobcentern zum Teil auch Unterlagen gefordert, die unter datenschutzrechtlichen Erwägungen für eine ordnungsgemäße Sachbearbeitung nicht erforderlich sind. Dies ist zu unterlassen.’ Was das Bayerische Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Soziales festgestellt hat ist vermutlich nicht nur in bayrischen Jobcentern ein Problem.

Ergänzen ließe sich diese Aufzählung mit Hinweisen auf eine Vielzahl von Urteilen von Sozial- und anderen Gerichten. Zwei will ich nennen:

  • Das Bundessozialgericht hat 2012 festgestellt: Jobcenter dürfen Daten von Leistungsbeziehern nicht ohne deren Einverständnis an Dritte wei-tergeben. In dem Fall ging es um Datenweitergabe an einen Vermieter.
  • Das Landgericht Heidelberg hat 2013 die An-ordnung eines Drogentests bei einer Frau, die arbeitssuchend war und Leistungen nach SGB II bezog, als rechtswidrig beurteilt.

Abschließend:
Ich will dazu ermuntern und aufrufen, dass Erwerbslose auch ihre immateriellen Rechte, insbesondere das Grundrecht auf informationelle Selbstbestimmung, kennen, aktiv wahrnehmen und verteidigen…“

Die Rede ist hier im Wortlaut nachlesbar.

Weitere Informationen zum Thema Sozialdatenschutz – nicht nur im Jobcenter – finden Sie hier.


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